The Talent Code: Greatness Isn't Born. It's Grown. Here's How.

不看ignite和teachers. 在goodreads上的review也是谈我看的部分, 剩下的部分对我不重要

谈myelin的内容不错,所以给4 stars. 跳过不看的部分不评论


Title: The Talent Code: Greatness Isn’t Born. It’s Grown. Here’s How.
Authors: Daniel Coyle
Edition: 1
Finished Date: 2019-04-23
Rating: 4
Language: English
Genres: Neuroscience, myelin
Level: Entry
Publishers: Bantam
Publication Date: 2009-04-28
ISBN: 978-0553806847
Format: ePub
Pages: 288
Download: ePub Pdf Mobi

Deep practice is built on a paradox: struggling in certain targeted ways—operating at the edges of your ability, where you make mistakes—makes you smarter

Skill is myelin insulation that wraps neural circuits and that grows according certain signals.

automatic in unconscious mind 作者提到这个,但没提到striatum

striatum形成习惯,也会让signal变快

diffusion tensor imaging: measure and map myelin inside living subjects

Ishibashi T, Dakin KA, Stevens B, Lee PR, Kozlov SV, Stewart CL, Fields RD. (2006) Astrocytes promote myelination in response to electrical impulses. Neuron. 2006 Mar 16;49(6):823-32. PMID: 16543131

  • Supporter cells called obligodendrocytes and astrocytes sense the nerve firing and respond by wrapping more myelin on the fiber that fires. The more the nerve fires, the more myelin wraps around it. The more myelin wraps around it, the faster the signals travel, increasing velocities up to 100 times over signals sent through an uninsulated fibers.

skill

  • a skill circuit where 2 neurons have to combine their impulses to make a 3rd high-threshold neuron fire.
  • In order to combine properly, those 2 incoming impulses must arrive at nearly exactly the same time. If the first 2 signals arrive more than 4 milliseconds apart, the combination of impulses is not high enough to fire the 3rd neuron. Build myelin to do it.

ligodendrocytes wraps 40-50 layers. take days or weeks.

More practice => more myelin => do skills more quickly

  • Why is wisdom most often found in older people?

    Because their circuits are fully insulated and instantly available to them; they can do very complicated processing on many levels, which is really what wisdom is. The volume of myelin in the brain continues to increase until around fifty.

  • Why can horses walk immediately on being born while humans take a year?

    A horse is born with its muscles already myelinated, online, and ready to go. A baby’s muscles, on the other hand, don’t get myelinated for a year or so, and the circuits get optimized only with practice.

Higher skills are made of million-neuron chains working together with exquisite millisecond timing.

Rule 1: chunk it up

  1. absorb the whole thing: 看完成品, 然后imitation

    • watch professional tennis player play
    • watch professional chess players’ game records
    • sing songs

      unconsciousness will absorb

  2. break it into chunks

    example

    1. scissor sheet music into horizontal strips
    2. memorize pieces individually
    3. link them together in progressively larger groupings
  3. slow down

    1. attend more closely to errors, create a higher degree of precision with each firing

      when it comes to growing myelin, precision is everything

      “It’s not how fast you can do it. It’s how slow you can do it correctly.”

    2. going slow helps the practicer to develop something even more important: a working perception of the skill’s internal blueprints mental presentation

Rule 2: repeat it

If don’t practice for a month, the skill evaporate

Daily practice matters.

deep practice

Rule 3: learn to feel it